OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia currently are considered risk factors for cardiovascular disease in type 1diabetes. Both acute hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia induce endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, raising the oxidative stress. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has antioxidant properties, and evidence suggests that it protects endothelial function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The effect of both acute hyperglycemia and acute hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes, with or without the simultaneous infusion of GLP-1, on oxidative stress (plasma nitrotyrosine and plasma 8-iso prostaglandin F2alpha), inflammation (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6), and endothelial dysfunction has been evaluated. RESULTS: Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia acutely induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. GLP-1 significantly counterbalanced these effects. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a protective effect of GLP-1 during both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes.